The first human settlers in the Maremma were hunters attracted by its abundant wildlife.
Their traces remain in the caves of Mount Pisano, in the Argentario area and throughout the Metalliferous Hills. This population was typical of the hydrographic basin of the River Fiora and the western banks of Lake Bolsena. In the IX-VIII century B.C. villages sprang up whose inhabitants’ main occupation was copper
The Etruscan civilisation (VIII-II centuries B.C.) is famous for the progression in its funeral rites from incineration to entombing, as can be seen in the numerous remains which make this one of the most fascinating archaeological areas in Italy. To the south, the town of Cosa and the ancient port of Talamone, then inland to Statonia and Sovana, north to Vetulonia and Roselle, one of the most flourishing Etruscan
The Etruscans loved and respected
nature: the land and the sea were fundamental elements of their world, as is borne out in the location of their cities and in the fusion of gold and bronze in their beautiful
As the Roman dominion spread, however, the Etruscan civilisation gradually weakened and its population diminished. After
the rule of the Longobards and the Aldobrandeschis, who upheld a feudal regime, the
dominion of Siena led to a prolonged period of decline in the Maremma and deadly malaria spread unchecked to the whole plain and into the
The Medici family endeavoured to make the coastal areas safer by strengthening their defences against the Turkish invasions and began to encourage commerce and exchange. However it was only with the advent of the Lorena dynasty that the Maremma came back to life; they abolished much of the taxation and granted free land, initiating vast operations of drainage and reclamation of the marshlands in an effort to combat malaria and encourage the repopulation of the Maremma region.